The universe on the edge of a bubble in a five-dimension space-time

Artist's concept of the universe on a 5D bubble (Image courtesy Suvendu Giri)
Artist’s concept of the universe on a 5D bubble (Image courtesy Suvendu Giri)

An article published in the journal “Physical Review Letters” describes a new model of the universe that proposes that it exists on the edge of an expanding bubble in a five-dimension space-time. A team of researchers from the Swedish University of Uppsala used string theory to hypothesize that the matter existing in the universe is accomodated at the edges of strings that extend into the fifth dimension. According to this hypothesis, what is called dark energy is an effect described by a cosmological constant in the four-dimension Friedmann equations.

The problem of dark energy is currently one of the most complex and controversial in the field of physics because its existence was hypothesized to explain the acceleration of the expansion of the universe, therefore because of its effects without knowing anything about its nature. String theory had many improvements through the years but also a lot of criticisms because no model based on it could explain consistently the whole universe. Dr. Souvik Banerjee and his colleagues proposed a model that offers a solution.

One of the problems of string theory-based models is that they hypothesize the existence of further dimensions with the problem of finding a way to verify the existence of dimensions that we can’t perceive. In the hypothesis of Dr. Souvik Banerjee’s team, the universe with four space-time dimensions that we perceive is accomodated at the edge of an expanding bubble that has a fifth dimension but there are five more dimensions that are “rolled up” to obtain the ten dimensions hypothesized by string theory.

These notorious strings extend into the fifth dimension and their ends are the matter of the universe we perceive. This model has the advantage of explaining dark energy starting from the description of five-dimension gravity arriving to the four-dimension Friedmann equations with a positive cosmological constant that describes the behavior that we perceive as acceleration of the expansion of the four space-time dimension universe.

The model proposed by Dr. Souvik Banerjee’s team makes the Big Bang obsolete meaning that it offers the concept of a universe born with a given size when the five-dimension bubble formed. Honestly I don’t understand how the cosmic microwave background radiation would be reinterpreted, as it’s considered one of the main evidence for the Big Bang.

These new cosmological models contain a lot of mathematics but they need to find the way to verify string theory in order to have an effective answer on its validity and in a positive case to understand which model is the correct one. If the model proposed by Dr. Souvik Banerjee’s team is correct, there should be deviations from gravity as described by Einstein’s theory of relativity for the presence of extra dimensions. We’d need very precise verification of measurements connected to effects such as gravitational lensing and gravitational waves.

In this model the bubble that contains our universe might not be the only one. In essence, it’s a model that opens the possibility to the existence of other universes and collisions between bubbles, a further starting point for the continuation of this model’s developments. In these cases it’s really difficult to say whether it’s the right path to achieve substantial progress in our understanding of the universe, and beyond, or it’s another dead end that makes sense from a mathematical point of view but will be debunked by some new discovery. The concepts it proposes are intriguing but that’s not enough.

3 Comments


  1. I suggest another theory, on the shape of the Universe, understanding of what I have learned, from years of reading everything I could find about studies and experiments in Physics, pouring over everything I found about the nature of our universe… the behavior of matter and energy… I have aways been facinated by every aspect of Physics in particular…
    Science of any sort, is amazing and wonderous, to put it plainly, I have always been totally enthralled by the complexities of matter and energy, I have learned so much about the laws of Physics…
    I’m not saying that I am in posession of every fact… far from it…
    I do believe however, that I have extensive and deep comprehension, of all the knowledge I’ve taken in, I have absorbed as best as I can.
    The things that seem so obvious to me now….
    That is of coarse, if I am not somehow, missing something or my reasoning is flawed and I am incorrect in my conclusions.
    I believe the true nature of all matter and energy, which makes up the very fabric of reality… the core of existance itself.
    Obvious by my reasoning, observing the behavior of matter by the guidelines put forth in “The Chaos Theory” all matter and energy have no clear patterns in their behavior, it is both complex and simple, a contradiction, it seems, yet… scale nullifies that contradiction.
    Of coarse we cannot see nor truly even prove beyond doubt, how these things look, in their virtually incomprehensible state, seeing them is beyond our ability…
    But we have proven their existance and much about their behaviors, within our experiments and research with what is observable and can be seen, though only with high power electron microscopes, or delicate equipment that can measure wave frequencies and accurately determine energy levels. The molecular structure of everything we know about, in breaking it down for analysis, all molecules are different, different shapes, different sizes…. all behave in different ways…. all react with each other….
    Applying this knowledge to all scale of material… Big, little and medium sizes. We know how these things we can see are made up of inconceivable numbers of smaller particles…. and so on and so on….
    Now even though it’s not been seen and probably never will be seen, an even tinier particle than an atom is discovered…. so all matter is again proven to consist of smaller matter…. who knows how many more sizes particle matter goes, if I were to take it from what we’ve discovered thus far…
    the answer seems to be obvious! There may be no end to the levels in scale….
    Just as it stands to reason, everything we percieve on our own SCALE, is also somewhere along the same chain scaling down… or UP…!
    As humorous as it sounds, “we might be a microbe on a fleas ass”
    it is in all probability, when all things are known to be smaller and smaller,
    so are they bigger and bigger.
    It all seems so massively simple, doesn’t it?

    I will close for now saying only that it’s not a big bubble it’s more like a giant DONUT…
    OBSERVING THE FLOW OF SMALLER MATTER AS IT IS CYCLING, OVER AND OVER, IN AN UNENDING ROTATIONAL FLOW THAT IS LIKE BOTH AN UPWARD AND DOWNWARD, THRUSTING UPWARD FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE DONUT HOLE, SPREADING IN AN ARCHED CURVE TO GO OUTWARD AND DOWN THE OUTSIDE OF THE DONUTONLY TO REPEAT THAT SAME PATH BAC UP AGAIN, WHILE OTHER PARTICLE MATTER IS DUPLICATING THE SAME PATHWAYS, BUT IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION, WHEN THEY INEVITABLY COLLIDE ON THE OUTSIDE THEIR ENERGY IS THE ENDLESS TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESS… CYCLING FOREVER, SO THAT THE FABRIC OF REALITY CAN EXIST.
    MAKING THE METAPHYSICAL INTO PHYSICAL….
    ON AND ON IN EVERY SCALE OF EXISTANCE….
    THANKS FOR READING MY RANT… AT THIS POINT IT’S STILL JUST A THESIS IN THE OVEN THAT NEEDS FINE TUNING AND AN ENDING, WITH MORE DETAILS, TO SHOW THE LOGIC AND SENSE OF IT…, I HOPE YOU FOUND IT INTERESTING…, HOPEFULLY IT GIVES YOU CAUSE TO THINK…. IT’S WHAT’S MISSING IN PEOPLE’S LIVES, WITH THE COMPUTERS AND MACHINES WE DEPEND ON DOING IT FOR US…
    WE’RE GETTING LESS INTELLIGENT, THAT’S THE REALITY OF IT, BUT WE DON’T KNOW…. DON’T REALIZE IT….
    WHY? Well…, We’re getting less intelligent, figure it out…. RIGHT ?!🤲😅😂🤣😉👽👍🤓🙏✌️
    TO BE CONTINUED….. Maybe….

    Reply

    1. We already know that particles such as protons and neutrons are not elementary but are made of quarks. I think some scientists speculated about quarks not being elementary particles already in the 1980s though for what I know no evidence was found, at least not so far.

      As for the universe, regardless of its shape, as a particle in a larger-scale structure, it’s a very old concept but at each scale structures actually have very different characteristics so today we know that an atom is nothing like a microscopic solar system. That means that at a bigger scale we might have other universes that form cluster-like structures but are likely very different from star clusters and molecules.

      Reply

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