Astronomy / Astrophysics

On the left, a common Supernova with no engine, on the right a Supernova with a strong engine that emits a gamma-ray burst, in the middle an intermediate case such as SN 2012ap (Image Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF)

An article published in “Astrophysical Journal” describes the diskovery made by a group of astronomers led by Sayan Chakraborti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). They studied a supernova called 2012ap (SN 2012ap) which is a missing link between ordinary ones and the ones that cause the emission of a gamma-ray burst.

Scheme of a three-body interaction in which a galaxy is turned into a compat elliptical then is ejected from a cluster (Image NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team)

There are several known cases of runaway stars such as Zeta Ophiuchi but now the Russian astronomers Igor Chilingarian and Ivan Zolotukhin of the Moscow State University’s Sternberg Astronomical Institute have found runaway galaxies. In an article published in the journal “Science”, the list 11 galaxies ejected from the clusters they used to be part of because of the gravitational interaction with their neighbors.

The sky around the star 51 Pegasi (Image ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2)

A team of astronomers used the HARPS (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher) instrument at ESO’s La Silla Observatory in Chile to obtain for the first time a direct detection of the spectrum of visible light from an exoplanet. It’s 51 Pegasi b, already well known by astronomers because it was the first exoplanet discovered among those orbiting a star on the main sequence.

The Hubble Space Telescope (Photo NASA)

On April 24, 1990, the Space Shuttle Discovery was launched in its STS-31 mission. In its cargo bay it carried a really special payload, the Hubble Space Telescope. The day after it was deployed in its orbit, just over 550 km (about 342 miles) altitude. On June 25, Hubble sent its first images, which revealed a flaw in its primary mirror that reduced its usefulness. The first of a series of service missions turned what had threatened to turn into a terrible failure into a symbol for science and technology that goes far beyond astronomy.

Picture of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko taken on March 12, 2015 at 5.13 UTC. No jets are coming from the bottom area (Image ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA)

ESA’s space probe Rosetta identified new jets of gas and dust emerge from the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The images were taken using the OSIRIS camera on March 12, 2015 and were presented last week during EGU2015 (European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2015) in Vienna. The activity on the comet keeps on increasing but it took some luck to detect new jets.