Cosmology

Representation of neutrinos reaching IceCube (Image courtesy IceCube Collaboration)

An article published in the journal “Nature” describes the measurement of the probability that neutrinos will be absorbed by Earth depending on their energy and the amount of matter they pass through. The researchers of the IceCube Collaboration used the neutrino detector in Antarctica to better understand the behavior of these elusive particles.

The galaxy NGC 4993 seen from several different ESO telescopes (Image VLT/VIMOS. VLT/MUSE, MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope/GROND, VISTA/VIRCAM, VST/OmegaCAM)

Yesterday ESO and LIGO/VIRGO collaboration held a press conference to present the results of a complex research that led to the discovery of the merger of two neutron stars observed in the emission of both electromagnetic and gravitational waves. These findings were collected in a series of articles that were published or will be published in the magazines “Nature”, “Nature Astronomy”, “Astrophysical Journal Letters” and “Physical Review Letters”.

Map of cosmic ray flux (Image courtesy Pierre Auger Collaboration)

An article published in the magazine “Science” describes a research on the distribution of cosmic rays’ arrival directions. The Pierre Auger Collaboration used data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory, Argentina, the largest ever built to detect cosmic rays, to find evidence that high energy cosmic rays come from outside the Milky Way.

An article published in the journal “Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society” describes a research that revealed a surprise in the origin of electromagnetic radiation from the Crab Nebula that can influence the research on cosmic rays. Federico Fraschetti of the University of Arizona, USA, and Martin Pohl of the University of Potsdam, Germany, believe that the model created by Enrico Fermi in 1949 is to be partially revised because those radiation are produced in a way different from what was thought.

Dark Energy Survey's map (Image Chihway Chang/Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago/DES Collaboration)

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration presented a map of dark matter at the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields at Fermilab created using gravitational lensing effects from 26 million galaxies. These results show the composition of the recent universe and are very close to the predictions based on the map created upon measurements the primeval universe of ESA’s Planck Surveyor satellite.