The SPT2349-56 proto-cluster (Image ESO/ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/Miller et al.)

Two articles, one published in the journal “Nature” and one in the journal “Astrophysical Journal”, describe the observations of the merger among various starburst galaxies, characterized by a remarkable production of stars. Two teams, led by Tim Miller of Dalhousie University in Canada and Yale University in the USA, and Iván Oteo of the Scottish University of Edinburgh used the ALMA and APEX radio telescopes to study these events which are very ancient as they happened about 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang.

Star systems observed by the SPHERE instrument (Image ESO/H. Avenhaus et al./E. Sissa et al./DARTT-S and SHINE collaborations)

Two articles, one published in the “Astrophysical Journal” and one in “Astronomy & Astrophysics”, describe two researches on a number of star systems. Two teams used the SPHERE instrument mounted on ESO’s VLT in one case to study dust and gas disks around a number of young stars in their formation stage and in the other case to study a pair of disks in a system with three stars.

The supernova remnants 1E 0102.2-7219

An article published in the journal “Nature Astronomy” describes the study of the supernova remnants identified as 1E 0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. A team of researchers led by Frédéric Vogt used the MUSE instrument installed on ESO’s VLT to observe a large ring of gas in that system that is slowly expanding into the depths of several other gas filaments that are quickly moving away, leaving behind a neutron star in the center.

The Orion Nebula

An article published in the journal “Astronomy & Astrophysics” describes a new study of the Orion Nebula. A combination of observations made with the ALMA radio telescope, the 30-meter IRAM telescope and the HAWK-I instrument installed on ESO’s VLT allowed the creation of a unique image of the Orion Nebula. It’s an area of ​​space in which there are various molecular clouds where gas concentrations give life to new stars in processes that can be best studied by putting together the data collected at different electromagnetic frequencies.

The star Pi1 Gruis seen by PIONIER (Image ESO)

An article published in the journal “Nature” describes the first direct observation of granulation on the surface of a star outside the solar system. An international team of Astronomers led by ESO’s Clauda Paladini used the PIONIER instrument installed on ESO’s VLT (Very Large Telescope) to conduct that observation on the star Pi1 Gruis. It was possible to observe its granules, convective cells each about 120 million kilometers across, because the dust that usually hinders these studies was far from the star.